Vietnam’s result in the 2017 Corruption Perceptions Index
22 February 2018 (Hanoi time), Transparency International (TI) launches its Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) 2017, ranking 180 countries and territories based on how corrupt their public sector is perceived to be, as determined by opinions and assessments of experts and business people.
Vietnam scored 35 points out of 100 on the 2017 Corruption Perceptions Index, ranking 107 out of 180i countries surveyed [i]. In the view of Towards Transparency (TT), the National Contact of TI in Vietnam, the slight increase of Vietnam’s CPI score for two consecutive years (in 2016 and 2017) is indicative of a positive signal for its anti- corruption efforts in recent years. However, on the scale of 0 (highly corrupt) to 100 (very clean), this indicates that corruption in the public sector of Vietnam is still perceived as highly serious. This also reaffirms the view of the Communist Party and the State of Vietnam on corruption in the country [ii].
In 2017, with the renewed commitments of the Party and the State, the national anti- corruption efforts have attained some positive results, including the adjudication of serious corruption cases involving several high-level public officials. At the same time, Vietnam has continued to improve its anti-corruption legal framework, such as the revision of the existing Law on Anti-corruption to be in line with international standards.
Currently, Vietnam has been undertaking its National Action Plan for the Implementation of the 2030 Sustainable Development Agenda (SDGs). In order to obtain systematic and sustainable changes and “substantially reduce corruption and bribery in all their forms” by 2030 (SDG 16.5), Vietnam needs to take further preventive measures, consolidate and develop effective, accountable and inclusive institutions. In particular, TT would like to recommend as follows:
For the State:
- Improve the effectiveness of the National Assembly’s oversight role and the independence in adjudication by the Judiciary.
- Enhance anti-corruption efforts in the areas where citizens encounter corruption and bribery on a regular basis (police, public health and public education) [iii] .
- Enlarge civic space, establish and strengthen effective mechanism for citizens and non-state organisations to participate in decision making and monitoring state management.
- Improve the legal framework on whistleblower protection so as to stimulate social participation in anti-corruption.
For businesses: Corruption poses a threat to the companies’ ability to complete fairly, therefore, it is necessary that they:
- Take initiatives in participating in the fights against corruption, building business integrity for sustainable development, enhancing reputation and competitive advantages in the context of international economic integration.
- Strengthen internal anti-corruption capacities, especially for state-owned enterprises (SOEs) [iv], including the development, implementation and disclosure of their anti-corruption programmes on their websites, with reference to the international standards [v].
For media, civil society organisations and citizens: Corruption cannot be tackled if there is limited civic space for people and media to engage, hence, it is important that they
- Actively engage in anti-corruption by the way of promoting transparency, integrityand accountability initiatives.
- Exercise the rights to access information and take part in monitoring theimplementation of the 2016 Law on Access to Information.
- Proactively promote and practice integrity, report corruption and bribery cases ofvarious levels, first and foremost by self-equipping with legal knowledge and information, especially anti-corruption regulations and laws
[i] Vietnam’s 2017 CPI score is calculated on the basis of 8 data sources that are independent international surveys. See more information on CPI data sources.
[ii] “Corruption and waste are pervasive across sectors, at different levels, in many industries they exist at wide scope and with high complexity, causing negative consequences and damaging citizen’s trust.” Resolution 04- NQ/TW, 4th Central Conference, the Central Committee of the Party XII, dated on 30 October 2016.
[iii] Police, public health and public education are the top three sectors where surveyed Vietnamese citizens experience corruption most. Global Corruption Barometer 2017: Vietnam, Transparency International and Towards Transparency, 2017.
[iv] SOEs have the lowest average score on Reporting on Anti-Corruption Programme. Transparency in Corporate Reporting (TRAC): Assessing the 30 largest countries in Vietnam, Towards Transparency, 2017.
[v] See the “Ten Anti-Corruption Principles for State-owned Enterprises”, Transparency International, 2017 and “UN Global Compact – TI Reporting Guidance on the 10th Principle against corruption“, United Nations Global Compact and Transparency International, 2009.
Key information about CPI
What is the Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI)?
Launched annually by Transparency International since 1995, the CPI scores and ranks countries/territories based on how corrupt a country’s public sector is perceived to be. It is a composite index, a combination of surveys and assessments of corruption, collected by a variety of reputable institutions. The CPI is the most widely used indicator of corruption worldwide.
Why is the CPI based on perceptions?
Corruption generally comprises illegal activities, which are deliberately hidden and only come to light through scandals, investigations or prosecutions. Whilst researchers from academia, civil society and governments have made advances in terms of objectively measuring corruption in specific sectors, to date there is no indicator which measures objective national levels of corruption directly and exhaustively. The sources and surveys which make up the CPI, ask their respondents questions which are based on carefully designed and calibrated questionnaires. (For a list of all sources and the questions that they ask, please see here.) The CPI contains informed views of relevant stakeholders, which generally correlate highly with objective indicators, such as citizen experiences with bribery as captured by the Global Corruption Barometer.
Further reading on CPI
FAQs on CPI
Full key recommendations from Towards Transparency (TT) to the Government and society of Vietnam
Transparency International’s Press release on CPI
Info-graphic on CPI
Full sources description
Technical Methodology Note