Vietnam Youth Integrity Survey 2014

YIS2014cover_ENYouth Integrity Survey 2014 (YIS 2014) is conducted by Towards Transparency (TT) – the national contact of Transparency International (TI), in collaboration with Centre for Community Development Studies (CECODES) and Centre of Live and Learn for Environment and Community (Live & Learn). It builds on the successful experience of the first edition of the YIS in 2011, comparing key data points across the three years between the two surveys.

In YIS 2014, 1,110 Vietnamese youth (aged 15 – 30) and 432 adults (a control group, aged over 30) were interviewed. The survey aims to study and identify changes (if any) in young people’s understanding of integrity, their concrete experiences and the challenges they face in applying these values in daily life.
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Year of Publication2015

How YIS 2014 measures integrity

YIS 2014 applies Transparency International’s definition of integrity: “behaviours and actions consistent with a set of moral or ethical principles and standards, embraced by individuals as well as institutions that create a barrier to corruption”. In order to ensure comparability with the 2011 results and to identify any developments, the questionnaire was largely unchanged. It deals with four different dimensions of integrity:

  • Morality and ethics – the conceptual understanding of behavioural standards;
  • Principles – the ability to differentiate between what is right and what is wrong;
  • Law abidingness – degree of compliance with the legal framework set forth by society; and
  • Resistance to corruption – ability to challenge corrupt practice.

The questionnaire from YIS 2014 and YIS 2011 has been used as a starting point by Transparency International in Fiji, Sri Lanka, Indonesia and South Korea. The first part of the survey covers the same questions in every implementing country to allow for international comparisons. The optional second part with more specific questions, allows for the collection of more detailed information. The optional third part aims to include country-specific questions, addressing particular laws or evaluating specific policy.

Why is YIS 2014 conducted

YIS 2014 aims to provide policy makers, educational institutions, civil society organisations and other interested stakeholders with detailed data and to identify trends in young people’s understanding of integrity, their experience and behaviour.

Since publication of the first Vietnam Youth Integrity Survey in 2011, the Vietnamese Government has demonstrated more commitment and action in fighting corruption and encouraging social engagement in anti-corruption. In addition, a growing number of universities, NGOs and other organisations have initiated innovative projects to increase understanding of corruption, transparency and integrity, particularly amongst youth.

The YIS 2014 data may help to increase the effectiveness of educational programmes and activities on integrity and anti-corruption for youth.

Significant changes in integrity among Vietnamese youth (2011-2014)

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 How credible are the research findings  

The Sample

As in the first edition of the YIS in Vietnam, YIS 2014 focused on young people aged 15 – 30. In this way, both the Vietnamese definition of youth (15 – 30 years old) and the international definition (15 – 24 years old) are met. The selected age range also helps ensure comparisons between Vietnamese youth and their international peers.

How were provinces and interviewees selected in YIS 2014?

In order to maximise comparability with the 2011 survey, YIS 2014 retains the four-stage design of the previous round:

  • Stage 1: Two provinces in each of the six socio-economic regions of Vietnam were randomly selected proportional to their size, using the Probability Proportional to Size methodology (PPS). The selected provinces for both surveys were: Hai Duong, Nam Dinh, Nghe An, Dien Bien, Lam Dong, Gia Lai, An Giang, Ho Chi Minh City, Long An, Binh Duong and Quang Ngai.
  • Stage 2: In each province, six census enumeration areas (three in rural areas and three in urban areas) were selected, again using the PPS method.
  • Stage 3: In each census enumeration area, 14 households for the youth sub-sample, and seven households for the adult control group were selected. In 2011, the household selection was based on information provided by the 2009 Population Census. By YIS 2014, the lists from the Population Census 2009 were out of date so the population lists were produced manually.
  • Stage 4: One person was selected in each of the selected households (one youth in each of 14 sampled households and one adult in each of the seven households).

In total, face-to-face interviews were conducted with 1,110 youth aged 15 – 30 (the target group), and 432 adults aged over 30 (the control group). While analysing the data 2014, researchers paid equal attention to all demographics of the respondents including age, gender, occupation, geography and ethnicity. However, the results showed that, similar to 2011, the awareness and behaviour of youth are most affected by their education level and economic status rather than any other factors.

How were the interviews conducted?

Live&Learn undertook the field survey work from December 2013 to May 2014, with the supervision of CECODES and the support of the provincial chapters of the Vietnam Fatherland Front.

For the field work, final year students or recent graduates from different regions were recruited and trained to be enumerators. Interviews were conducted either at homes of the respondents or in neutral places, such as coffee houses. Special attention was paid to minimise potential disturbance such as the presence of the authorities or senior people at the interviews.

Based on earlier experiences, the team planned sufficient time to reach as many respondents as possible in the defined sampling points.

How can the survey findings be used?

The data provided in this report can inform improvements in anti-corruption policy and its implementation, from the perspective of the particular needs of Vietnam’s youth.

In addition, a number of interesting questions arose in analysing the YIS results and require further study. For example: what are the psychological, cultural and economic conditions that influence the gap between awareness and behaviours of youth in general and between the less educated and more educated in particular? Therefore, the report suggests some directions and a scope of work for researchers and organisations who are interested in the topic of youth integrity.

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